Framework: design of safety risk analysis dashboard

Dashboards are used by companies and organization to get an overview and to gain insights and in this way to be able to control and develop the organization. I want to create a framework for a design methodology that aims to build a dashboard for work environment risk analysis. Using the artifact the users effectively gain insights into the risk analysis process on a large number of local and geographically dispersed units. The problem addressed is how the designer take the right design decisions on WHAT to visualize and HOW it should be presented. There is a large focus on the relationship between data, data representation, visualization and cognition. I would also say that it is a user-centered design process.

Introduction

Image 1. Senior Manager within a group that has the responsibility to control the process of working on a larger number of units that are geographically dispersed. To help them, she has a dashboard where data is visualized and presented

Dashboards are used for corporate and business analysis in order to get an overview monitor and guide the development of an organization or a company. The area Compliance Management concerns information gathering, analysis and control for the organization to adhere to the laws and rules that apply.  Dashboards are a part of a Compliance Software. A particular focus is on users who are senior leaders, national or international levels. In this project a senior leader who needs to control how the work environment is managed at hundreds of local branches or places of business. A systematic approach to health and safety at work is about to pay attention and take into account all the circumstances of the work environment that may affect employees health and safety. Image 1 describes how a senior manager has the responsibility to guide the process of work environment on a larger number of units that are geographically dispersed. To help her make the right decisions, she has a dashboard where data is visualized and presented. Figure 1 may represent a target image for the artefact to be created.

Problem

How could a framework for designing a dashboard for the management of health and safety risk assessments on a larger number of units be developed.

Background

Dashboarddesign

When a dashboard shall be developed the designer must understand what is considered to be a signs of success (or the opposite) in the field. The designer must analyses the Business Performance Management (BPM) and he/she must produce knowledge on Key Performance Indicators (KPI) (Frolick & Ariyachandra, 2006), (Weber & Thomas, 2005), (Chowdhary, Palpanas, Pinel, Chen, & Wu, 2006). This is a demand-driven (user-centric) perspective. It is also possible to have a supply-driven (data centred) perspective. (Borgman, Heier, & Bahli, 2012). Here, the designers start of from the data and data sources that are available. There are also reasons to learn about national and international standards and perceptions what constitutes success in a particular field or industry (Ryan, Lewis, Fretwell, Doster, & Daily, 2013). By this the KPIs can be examined in a wider context. It becomes possible to compare one organization to another.

It is possible to divide the design process in different parts. These are: BPM-analysis, KPI-analysis, analysis of data and data sources, data aggregation, visualization, presentation. There is also a major need for knowledge on existing technologies, data formats and data structures.

In the article Harnessing the web information ecosystem with wiki‐based visualization dashboards McKeon introduces the idea of a wiki‐like system for building dashboards (McKeon, 2009).  A very simple instructive image is presented in the article that essentially shows some different parts of a dashboard. The last part, social media is of particular interest to McKein. Social dimensions are not as interesting for me at this point in current project but the other parts can be regarded general in the preparation of creating a dashboard. Here below shows the five main parts of McKeins image.

Data sources > Data aggregator > Visualization > Presentation > Social media

Data sources can be internal data (produced within the organization) or external data (such as meteorological data, or data from social media). Data aggregation is the part where different data and data sources are mixed. By combining multiple data sets new patterns emerge and new knowledge arises. Visualization phase is when the developer chooses which method or model for visualization that is most suitable to communicate with the user. The presentation is when all the visualizations are compiled into a single page. This part also concerns the interface where the user can switch between different visualizations or variables. This article clarifies the importance of how the developer must understand what data formats, data structures and standards that exist. How data is structured and in what format it is when it is obtained from the different data sources. The developer needs a good knowledge of the structure and format to be able to ”get the data into” the aggregator. There should also be a given structure and format of the data ”from the” aggregator for an easy way to generate visualization – either by existing programs or through programming. It must also be easy to compile all the visualizations in a presentation; a dashboard.

With consideration of the argumentation above I have chosen to sketch on a separate overview of the design process. This is obviously a matter that will need to be developed during the process and this development is also part of the process. In this paper, the four points is seen as a first sketch based on my prior knowledge of the subject.

  1. Demanddriven, usercentric analys
  2. Supplydriven, datacentric analys
  3. Development of visualizations
  4. Presentation

I will also need knowledge about technology. It is technology that makes this possible and the whole process is framed by technology. I do not express technology as a step or phase of the process but as a prerequisite for the project. Questions about data, data format, data structure is central to the project, but also the choice of technology solution. There are a number of ways to build a dashboard and the project includes an understanding of the various options. Briefly, there is a set of tools on the market for visualization. It is also possible to create visualization by programming.

It will be necessary that the model becomes more detailed. Each point (1-4) itself contains of parts that will be described. In this way, the model will be developed during the project and the model is part of the framework to be developed. The model is the outcome of the design-orientated research.

Working environment (health and safety at work)

A systematic approach to health and safety at work is about to pay attention and take into account all the circumstances of the work environment that may affect employees health and safety. This is in Sweden regulated in the Work Environment Ordinance (1977:1166 ) and in the Work Environment Act (1977:1160) . In Sweden the governmental authority Swedish Work Environment Authority monitors that the law is followed. They publish detailed specifications for how the companies will work to fulfil the law.  The key document from the Swedish Work Environment Authority is AFS 2001:1 that constitutes what must be done to comply with the legislation. And in this is stated that every company or organization are conducted to once a year or at major organizational changes conduct a risk analysis.

At the international level there is a standard for work environment called OHSAS 18001. It is the basis for how safety management systems should be designed. The management system is a structure of how the organization works with their health and safety. It includes monitoring, evaluation and reporting of environmental performance. If OHSAS 18001 is done the right way to fulfil the requirements for systematic safety work the organisation also for fills the Swedish law and AFS 2001:1 automatically. It is possible to argue that the risk analysis is central not only on a national but also on an international level.

Risk Analysis

A risk analysis takes its starting point from available data, research and statistics on occupational risks in a particular sector and, based on this knowledge, the analyst produces a number of checkpoints.  Risks are highlighted and weighted. An action plan is created and then the each risk must be addressed. Risk assessment, summaries of injuries and incidents and action plans must be (by law) to be documented.

IT support for risk analysis

The company Glykol AB develops an IT system for risk analysis called CheckSys. It is from this system that the data will be retrieved for visualization and for this reason the core functions of the system is explained. The IT system CheckSys supports a risk analysis process for specific, targeted control issues. The concept supports the user throughout the process with current accurate information, check points, proposed measures and reference to regulations. The process is documented automatically. The concept was developed for safety control and risk management for good work environment and the concept can be applied to any industry or profession.

User Groups

Thinking about creating a dashboard for risk analysis in the work environment is based on the idea that work is important, not only from a human perspective but also from a business perspective. There are high costs for a company with sick people. Accidents, illness or death is very negative for the brand Companies need to compete for the best talent in the market and it is not only the salary that determines whether a talent chooses to take up employment. The work environment is also something that affects the ability to attract employees. It is a generally accepted view that it is profitable with systematic work environment management.  (Calculating the international return on prevention for companies : Costs and benefits of investments in occupational safety and health, n.d.)

It is common with various forms of commercial chains in Sweden. It May be a commercial chain with a large number of stores, car repair shop, hamburger restaurants and so on. It could be a brand with so-called franchisees. It will be a central issue at the national level to manage, operate, so that all local branches or franchise taker in the group stay with the laws or regulations on work environment. The profession of this this is called Compliance Management  (Sandner, Kehlenbeck, & Breitner, 2010). The IT systems or tools used for compliance management called for the compliance software.

The primary user of the artefact is a senior manager with responsibility for work environment within a larger group. A title that commonly used HR-manager. HR stands for Human Resource and this person is responsible to guide and improve the work environment. The challenge is to control the work environment on a large number of geographically dispersed units. Mekonomen which is a group within the automotive industry, to take one example, had by the end of 2012, more than 400 stores and over 2,300 affiliated service centers, operating under the Mekonomen different brand (Årsredovisning Mekonomen, Meca 2012, 2012). How shall the senior manager be able to get an overview or manage the risk analys process on such a number of locations each year.

The dashboard that is developed in this project is a key part of the compliance software whose purpose is to get an overview and to control the process of risk analysis for good work on a large amount of geographically dispersed units. The HR-manager must be able to demonstrate that there is a systematic work environment management, how it occurs and what effect it will have. These reports or information must be presented to the board of directors and shall, if the organization wishes to develop resonate in document management and external communication.

There is another user-level and it is the HR-manager at a local level. Note that the Swedish law and Environment Act is very clearly designed with regarding liability. It is difficult to delegate a work environmental responsibility and it is always the CEO who has the legal responsibility. If there is an accident, the president can be prosecuted. For that reason, the local HR manager needs to assure the local CEO that the work environment is in accordance with Swedish law.

Method

Below the four parts of a design process is sketched and I have outlined the problems, methods and expected results. The table also has two focuses; Design orientated research and Research orientated design. Fällman differentiated design-oriented design from research – oriented design. Design-oriented – research is the design methodology and research the area – the product knowledge. In Research-oriented design research is methodology and design area. Here is the product an artefact (Fallman, n.d.). In the left column, then the result is some kind of design knowledge while in the right column is the expected result which ultimately becomes a digital artefact.

Design orientated research Research orientated design
Demanddriven – usercentric Problem
How to find out which the design needs are.
Method
Reading, questionnaire, interview.
Outcome
Template – a tool for information gathering.
Demanddriven – usercentricProblem
What insights the user should be able to get from the dashboard?
Method
BPM and KPI investigation.
Outcome
List of KPIs
Supplydriven datacentricProblem
How to find out which design is possible?
Method
Systematic analysis of IT systems, data, and data representation
Outcome
Template as a tool to create an understanding of data access, data structure.
Supplydriven datacentricProblem
What data are available and how is it structured?
Method
Analyzing IT system CheckSys, database model and data.
Outcome
List and description of available data
VisualizationProblem
Visualizations which enhances cognition
Method
Prototype – user test – Iteration
Outcome
Knowledge of the design process, data, representation, visualization, cognition.
VisualizationProblem
How will the data de visualized?
Method
Building visualization with some form of technology.
Outcome
Sketch, prototype, visualization
PresentationProblem
Which design decisions need to be made for the presentation?
Method
Prototype – user test – Iteration
Outcome
Knowledge of the design process, interaction aspects of the presentation.
PresentationProblem
How are they different visualizations compiled / presented?
Method
Compiling visualization with any kind of technology.
Outcome
Sketch, prototype, product – the compilation. 

 

Delimitation

I want to discuss the delimitation in depth with my supervisor. I realize the importance of delimitation but I find it difficult to sort parts out from this project without losing in credibility. It seems to me that all parts I sketches are equally important.

One way to delimit this research project would be to focus on the visualization of data and presentation of visualizations. The first two parts sketched above consisting of a usercentric analysis and a datacentric analysis would in this case work as a contextual background. The two analyses are presented as input in the design project.

The formal work of the master’s program then takes its starting point from the existence of a good knowledge on BPM and KPIs. There will also be a perception that it is possible to produce data from the IT system CheckSys. Here is an example of questions that I assume are important to the national coordinator of work environment within a group.

How many local entities have started a risk analysis? How many have finished a risk analysis? How many have started their second risk analysis? How many have completed their second risk analysis.

In the example above the project take its starting point in how this is visualized in the wisest way? In witch manner is the visualization enhancing cognition? In this delimitation the artefact will be one (1) visualization and / or presentation of data.

One idea is that this (first) visualization is done to a certain level; a sketch or prototype. After this, I would go ahead and produce next sketch of visualizations. When I reached the number of visualizations I will need to analyse their relationship. How are they presented on the dashboard? This part of the work will involve interaction design. Should the user be able to interact with the dashboard? What happens for example if the user is given the option to choose to see all the visualizations based on a specific variable; for example the variable year?

Visualization and HCI
30,000 years ago, humans began scraping and painting images and characters that represented things and events of their lives. Images depicting the animals, hunting, people. It is conceivable that these images were part of a communication between people (while these images certainly also have other functions, such as religious or ritual). Humans now started externalizing information which is a big step in human history – we now had the ability to store information, store knowledge. Memory, knowledge and insights could now travel over longer distances but also conveyed from one generation to another (Lindqvist & Söderlind, 2013). People have been arranging data into tables (columns and rows) at least since the 2nd century C.E., but the idea of representing quantitative information graphically didn’t arise until the 17th century. For this innovation we have the French philosopher and mathematician Rene Descartes to thank (Few 2013). When talking about data visualizations and human perception there is an underlying thought that the data represents something. By collecting data and then somehow present the data, we humans can create an understanding of what the data represents. It seems that humans more easy  can create knowledge from images than from large amounts of data.

Well-designed interactive visualizations help users gain insights from their data, identify patterns, and make decisions. During visual analysis, a single analyst or a group, access information from multiple sources to combine insights (Elias & Bezerianos, 2012). Information visualization can be described as the interactive computer based visual representation of abstract data to amplify cognition (Sandner et al., 2010). Yau believes that visualization is not to be seen as a tool, but rather as a medium (Yau, 2013). The aim is to create meaning from the data. It has been a long time in human history been a need to explain complex processes and context in a simple way.

It is very clear that when someone wants to research the area occurs that a need for both research and practical design hand in hand. It seems very positive to have a practical problem to address. By providing a practical problem, there are given reasons to raise questions about who the user is, what insights that visualization is to provide and what data is available. Here are som examples from the HCI research community.

Production of complex IT system requires review, monitoring and management. The various participants in the projects must also understand what the other participants or groups of participants are doing and the dashboard is in this perspective also a form of communication between various stakeholders (Treude & Storey, n.d.). Another article describes how dashboards are used in health care (Ryan et al., 2013). One research project is about analyzing and visualizing how networks at banks are doing (Barcelos, Aburjaile, Leite, Oliveira, & de Melo-MinarcTi, 2012). One article are focusing on building and deploying learning analytics dashboards in multiple learning Environments (Vozniuk, Govaerts, & Gillet, 2013).

It is very common in the articles I read with findings about the importance of understanding human perception and cognition, but it is seldom offered any detailed explanation precisely how human perception works. An example off such article is Data Visualization for Human Perception in which the author notes that we (the designer) must follow design principles “That are derived from an understanding of human perception”.  But then again there are no explanations of human perception and visualization. In the article A Model for the Visualization Exploration Process the visualization process and results are presented (Jankun-Kelly, n.d.). But neither this research focuses on cognition, but has a strong focus on analysing the data available. Yau explains how the process of developing a visualization a winding process that requires expertise in statistics and in design.

Some researchers argue that when designing visualizations it is effective with participatory approaches to user-centered design, in which users and other stakeholders are involved in co-creating. That the artifact then becomes more useful and usable (Goodwin et al., 2013). The article Creative User-Centered Visualization Design for Energy Analysts and Modelers is very interesting from that perspective (Goodwin et al., 2013). This article also shows how extensive the design process of this kind can be.

A key issue in the design of visualizations is how the visualization shall provide the best cognitive enhancement. En example: If Peter has 20 apples, Karin has 40, Anders has 33, Olle 67 and Anna 12 apples. What type of visualization is the easiest for humans to create knowledge.

  1. 1.     Histogram
  2. 2.     Piechart
  3. 3.     Polarchart

The example is a very simple and it is possible to question whether any visualization at all is needed. But I want to illustrate how the designers face a variety of choices based on a user-centric perspective. In this context, the ability to gain insights from a specific visualization could be regarded as a design quality. Qualities in design has been given some attention in the HCI community. A number of researchers have published articles on this and a lesson is that all design qualities is not relevant for all design objects (Gaver, 2012), (Zimmerman, Forlizzi, & Evenson, 2007), (Cross, 2001). I would guess that it would be possible to reason about design qualities for both visualization and respect dashboard.

It should be noted that visualization is a wide area in HCI. There are many parts that are not relevant for this project. It may be a matter of how data from an X-ray machine shall be visualized as a three-dimensional image of internal organs. It also may involve visualization of complex relationships in social media and so on.

In this context I do the research within the tradition of visualization that has its background in the field of statistics. In The Encyclopedia of Human- Computer Interaction, 2nd Edition is a chapter called Data Visualization for Human Perception (Few 2013 ) witch gives a historical review and summary of  key works in the field. Briefly, there is a culture of visualization and established methods. Such examples are bar charts, pie charts, etc. Another area is the visualization of the spatial aspects where maps are common. It is common with the temporal aspect and timelines is a cultural property in visualization. Recent years word clouds or tagg-clouds has established itself as a regular recurring way to prove the existence of something and so on . In HCI , the term pattern is established and there are reasons to examine whether there are patterns for visualization (Fallman, 2003), (Löwgren, 2002), (Wolf, Rode, Sussman, & Kellogg, 2006), (Erickson, 2000), (Welie & Veer, n.d.), (Road & Guy, 2005). To me it seems possible to investigate if there are patterns to be made in visualization of a process (risk analysis process).

Reading
Soon the Module Interactive Media Design Topic will begin and as I understand it would be a great opportunities learn more on central issues (From Course syllabu: One of two optional courses, each worth 5 credits, Which are Offered in order to allow students to choose Their Own areas of specialization). If the project as proposed in this document would happen the reading could involve following areas: Visualization, data representation, cognition. There should also be reading in design theory and processes to better understand what a framework is and should be. See Annex 2 for the current draft for reading.

Discussions on theory and methods

The primary challenge is that the project is excessive in relation to the time available. At the same time, I feel that it is not possible to select certain parts (1-4) and leave some parts behind. To enter the field of visualization without first analyzing user requirements or availability and format of the data will be to make the mistake that many believe that will lead to failure. The product will become neat visualization without meaning. This is something I want to discuss with my supervisor and consult a good delimitation. I see the following challenges in this project:

a) It is wide and multilayered research area. There must be a clear delimitation and schedule (see Annex 1 for a first sketch on timetable).

b) It is in the borderland information – cognition which is complex.

c) It involves an understanding of data formats, data communication, technology, programming, and I have not indebt knowledge on this.

d) Expenses – Professional visualization software costs money.

It is very common in the articles I read with findings about the importance of understanding human perception and cognition, but the articles do not offers any detailed explanation. I experience that there not is a particular focus within the HCI Community to actually evaluate how easy or difficult it is to create insight or knowledge from a particular visualization.

It has been rewarding to learn how common it is to start from a given problem and both the design process and the research process often has a user-centric perspective. It puts my project in a larger context. I think that it is possible to work in the manner proposed. Above all, it is interesting that in the area of visualization is always important with a need to understand the purpose of a particular visualization. That the visualization is about achieving certain specified benefits of the design at the same time visualizations of nature are visual (Graphic / aesthetic). I interpret the design orientated research to be rooted in reality and that it is welcoming to the research-oriented design aim to achieve different benefits.

Zimmerman, Forlizzi and Evenson gives in their article Research Through Design as a Method for Interaction – Design Research in HCI ideas for some criteria to design research can be evaluated based(Zimmerman et al., 2007). They raise questions about the research contributes to the understanding of the design process. Research results must be new. They must contribute to new knowledge. The research must be relevant to the research community, not only to specific researcher. I understand that research will relate to previous research but also be designed in such a way that it is possible to build on the research.

It is fortunate that both safety and risk analysis are areas that are dynamic. Work environment concerns many. There is an international standard and the area is researched. Risk analysis is a process that can be used in many fields and by this also a wide area. It is a general process. Perceptions of visualization, perception and cognition are also the established areas. For these reasons I believe that it is possible to create visualizations, presentations, dashboards and framework and the knowledge is generalizable. It is my opinion that after taking into account Zimmerman, Forlizzi and Evenson tips on how design research should be evaluated I see great opportunety to succeed in this project.

 

 

 

References

Barcelos, Y., Aburjaile, F., Leite, L. R., Oliveira, S. T., & de Melo-MinarcTi, R. C. (2012). Combining traditional and high-density visualizations in a dashboard to network health monitoring. 2012 IEEE Conference on Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST), 295–296. doi:10.1109/VAST.2012.6400509

Borgman, H. P., Heier, H., & Bahli, B. (2012). Paradise by the Dashboard Light: Designing Governance Metrics in Turbulent Environments. 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 4178–4188. doi:10.1109/HICSS.2012.465

Calculating the international return on prevention for companies : Costs and benefits of investments in occupational safety and health. (n.d.). International Social Security Association. Retrieved from http://www.issa.int/content/download/182976/3652717/file/2-ROP-FINAL.pdf

Chowdhary, P., Palpanas, T., Pinel, F., Chen, S., & Wu, F. (2006). Model-Driven Dashboards for Business Performance Reporting. 2006 10th IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC’06), 374–386. doi:10.1109/EDOC.2006.34

Cross, N. (2001). Designerly Ways of Knowing: Design Discipline Versus Design Science. Design Issues, 17(3), 49–55. doi:10.1162/074793601750357196

Elias, M., & Bezerianos, A. (2012). Annotating BI Visualization Dashboards : Needs & Challenges, 1641–1650.

Erickson, T. (2000). Lingua Francas for Design : Sacred Places and Pattern Languages, 357–368.

Fallman, D. (n.d.). Research-oriented Design, 1–3.

Fallman, D. (2003). Design-oriented human-computer interaction. Proceedings of the conference on Human factors in computing systems – CHI  ’03, (5), 225. doi:10.1145/642651.642652

Frolick, M. N., & Ariyachandra, T. R. (2006). Business Performance Management: One Truth. Information Systems Management, 23(1), 41–48. doi:10.1201/1078.10580530/45769.23.1.20061201/91771.5

Gaver, W. (2012). What should we expect from research through design? Proceedings of the 2012 ACM annual conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems – CHI  ’12, 937. doi:10.1145/2207676.2208538

Goodwin, S., Dykes, J., Jones, S., Dillingham, I., Dove, G., Duffy, A., … Wood, J. (2013). Creative user-centered visualization design for energy analysts and modelers. IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, 19(12), 2516–25. doi:10.1109/TVCG.2013.145

Gresh, D. L., Rabenhorst, D. a., Shabo, a., & Slavin, S. (2002). PRIMA: A case study of using information visualization techniques for patient record analysis. IEEE Visualization, 2002. VIS 2002., 509–512. doi:10.1109/VISUAL.2002.1183817

Jankun-Kelly, T. J. (n.d.). A spreadsheet interface for visualization exploration. Proceedings Visualization 2000. VIS 2000 (Cat. No.00CH37145), 69–76,. doi:10.1109/VISUAL.2000.885678

Lindqvist, M., & Söderlind, P. (2013). Informationskompetens : en grundbok (2., [uppda.). Stockholm: Sant{é}rus.

Löwgren, J. (2002). The use qualities of digital designs, 1–14.

McKeon, M. (2009). Harnessing the web information ecosystem with wiki-based visualization dashboards. IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, 15(6), 1081–8. doi:10.1109/TVCG.2009.148

Road, L., & Guy, E. S. (2005). “… real , concrete facts about what works …”: School of Computing , Mathematical and Information Sciences , University of Brighton, 99–108.

Ryan, J., Lewis, C., Fretwell, C., Doster, B., & Daily, S. (2013). A Balanced Scorecard Approach to Perioperative Process Management: A Case Study Perspective. 2013 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2606–2615. doi:10.1109/HICSS.2013.29

Sandner, T., Kehlenbeck, M., & Breitner, M. H. (2010). Visualization of Automated Compliance Monitoring and Reporting. 2010 Workshops on Database and Expert Systems Applications, 364–368. doi:10.1109/DEXA.2010.77

Treude, C., & Storey, M. (n.d.). Awareness 2 . 0 : Staying Aware of Projects , Developers and Tasks using Dashboards and Feeds, 365–374.

Weber, A., & Thomas, R. (2005). KEY PERFORMANCE Measuring and Managing the Maintenance, (November).

Welie, M. Van, & Veer, G. C. Van Der. (n.d.). Pattern Languages in Interaction Design : Structure and Organization.

Wolf, T. V., Rode, J. a., Sussman, J., & Kellogg, W. a. (2006). Dispelling “design” as the black art of CHI. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems – CHI  ’06, 521. doi:10.1145/1124772.1124853

Vozniuk, A., Govaerts, S., & Gillet, D. (2013). Towards Portable Learning Analytics Dashboards. 2013 IEEE 13th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, 412–416. doi:10.1109/ICALT.2013.126

Yau, N. (2013). Data points : visualization that means something. Indianapolis: John Wiley {&} Sons.

Zimmerman, J., Forlizzi, J., & Evenson, S. (2007). Research through design as a method for interaction design research in HCI. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems – CHI  ’07, 493. doi:10.1145/1240624.1240704

Årsredovisning Mekonomen, Meca 2012. (2012). Retrieved from http://vp083.alertir.com/files/press/mekonomen/201303225178-2.pdf

Non-scientific sources

Visualization as Process, Not Output  Retrieved from http://blogs.hbr.org/2013/04/visualization-as-process/ 2013-10-28

Årsredovisning Mekonomen, Meca 2012. (2012). Retrieved from http://vp083.alertir.com/files/press/mekonomen/201303225178-2.pdf 2013-10-28

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix 1 – Timetable a first sketch

1 December 2013 – 15 January 2014
Reading Interactive Media Design Topic. Efforts to carve out a clear process of research and design process. Detailed schedule clear.

1 January 16 to February 15
Working with prototypes and documentation of the design process.

February 16 to March 15
Working with prototypes and documentation of the design process.

March 16-April 15
Maria Normark, preliminary information: Around the 26th of March will design report is submitted and the design concept / prototype pitchas the class.

April 16 to May 15
It is unclear whether students should continue with design process and design of protyper or if students should focus entirely on writing a scientific article. Need answers to this.

May 16-June 15
Maria Normark, preliminary information: One of the last days of May to master article submission and it is vented through the opposition procedure at the beginning of June.

 

 

Appendix 2 – Suggested reading

S. Card, J. Mackinlay, and B. Shneiderman, “Readings in Information Visualization – Using Vision to Think,” Morgan Kaufmann, January 1999.

A historical review of visualization in human cognition http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02300481

Distributed Cognition as a Theoretical Framework for Information Visualization
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4658127&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D4658127

http://interaction-design.org/courses/information_visualization-_getting_dashboards_right.html

Construction of a dashboard for working environmental (health and safety at work) risk analysis

The goal of this article is to define what a person must know to create a dashboard for working environmental risk analysis. The article is the result of information retrieval on the term dashboard from a design perspective. This article describes two overarching perspective. These are demand-driven (user-centric) or supply-driven (data centered). One conclusion is that readings will have to be on in several different industries, technologies and disciplines.

Introduction
Dashboards are used for corporate and business analysis in order to get an overview monitor and guide the development of an organization or a company. The area Compliance Management concerns information gathering, analysis and control for the organization to adhere to the laws and rules that apply. This article examines the area of ​​ working environmental risks and it is possible to argue that what is examined is the ability to create a dashboard as compliance software for the area. A particular focus is on users who are senior leaders, national or international level and who need to control how the work environment is managed at hundreds of local branches or places of business.

Work environment (health and safety at work)

A systematic approach to health and safety at work is about to pay attention and take into account all the circumstances of the work environment that may affect employees health and safety. Crucial for a systematic work is what is what is achieved in practice to improve the working environment. This is in Sweden regulated in the Work Environment Ordinance (1977:1166 ) and in the The Work Environment Act (1977:1160) . In Sweden the governmental authority Arbetsmiljöverket monitors  that the law is followed. They publish detailed specifications for how the companies will work to fulfill the law. Every company or organization are conducted to once a year or at major organizational changes conduct a risk analysis.

A risk analysis takes its starting point from available data, research and statistics on occupational risks in a particular sector and, based on this knowledge, produced a number of control points . Risks are highlighted and weighted. An action plan is created and then the each risk must be addressed. Risk assessment, summaries of injuries and incidents and action plans must be to be documented.

It is very common with various forms of commercial chains in Sweden. It may be a commercial chain with a large number of stores, car repair-shop, hamburger restaurants and so on. It could be a brand with so-called franchisees. It will be a central issue at the national level to manage, operate, so that all players in the group stay with the laws or regulations on work environment. The profession of this this is called Compliance Management.

There is a need on top-level as the manager of a trademark or brand monitoring how the local actors do their job. Trends, changes, progress must be monitored and there is a need for a tool or aid for analysis and decision-making. In this article i want to define the knowledge areas concerning creation of a dashboard for working environmental (health and safety at work) risk analysis. To do this we need to establish what constitutes a good work environment and how can the activities around this be measured?

Business Management
Corporate business management is a very broad area that can be summarized with an organizations actions, tools, and culture to guide the company in the desired directions. In this context, I will focus on two things: Business Performance Management (BPM) and Key Performance Indicators (KPI). Business Performance Management is a consolidation of concepts that companies have been practicing for some time, such as data ware housing, business intelligence, and quality management. This single integrated concept is focused on Enhancing Corporate Performance. BPM provides an opportunity to align operations to organizational strategy and evaluates its progress overtime toward goal attainment (Frolick & Ariyachandra, 2006). Performance measurement is a fundamental principle of management. The measurement of performance is important because it identifies current performance gaps between current and desired performance and provides indication of progress towards closing the gaps. Carefully selected key performance indicators identify precisely where to take action to improvement performance (Weber & Thomas, 2005). It is important to identify what is important in an organization, then seek to measure this. This is what is called the KPI and the data that is collected can then be analyzed and forms an important part of the governance of the organization.

It is possible to argue that to and govern a company in a more systematic way demonstrates both the levels of hazards in work environment and how systematic approach to the work environment lead to competitive advantage. An similar concept is Competitive Intelligence that could be under stood as methods and tools for using in the organization with the goal to give the company strategic advantage. Competitive Intelligence are about the development of technologies, systems , practices , and applications to analyze critical business data so as to gain new insights about business and markets . The new insights can be used for improving products and services, achieving better operational efficiency, and fostering customer relationships (Chen & Chen, 2013).

In the area of ​​required tools for creating insight and knowledge from large amounts of data it is a systematic way of looking at the world that aims to create capacity for action at alternative future scenario. Special focus is on creating the opportunity to understand and preferably anticipate unexpected changes.

Dashboard
A dashboard is a real-time snapshot created that allows the user to get insights. It is a user interface that presents facts and trends in an organization and its environment. The concept dashboard has its background in design for cars and concerns the design of information interaction that occurs between driver and car. The basic idea of ​​a dashboard is that interactive visualizations help users gain insights into data, identify patterns, and make decisions. During visual analysis, a single analyst or a group , access information from multiple sources to combine insights (Elias & Bezerianos, 2012).

The dashboards major parts
In the article Harnessing the web information ecosystem with wiki-based visualization dashboards McKeon Introduces the idea of ​​a wiki-like system for building dashboards (McKeon, 2009). He describes how there is a variety of data sources, tools for processing information and tools for visualizing data. He describes that it is his goal to research and development with ambition to reduce the barriers to create a dashboard. He examines in detail how it is possible communicate the artifacts through social media, and that a dashboard can become a social phenomenon where many people co-create and develop dashboard. A very simple instructive image is presented in the article that essentially shows some different parts of a dashboard. The last part, social media is of particular interest to McKein but the other parts can be regarded general in the preparation of creating a dashboard. Here below shows the five main parts of McKeins image.

Data sources > Data aggregator > Visualization > Presentation > Social media

Data sources can be internal data (produced within the organization) or external data (such as meteorological data, or data from social media). Data aggregation is the part where different data and data sources are mixed. By combining multiple data sets new patterns emerge and new knowledge arises. Visualization phase is when the developer chooses which method or model for visualization that is most suitable to communicate with the user. The presentation is when all the visualizations are compiled into a single page. This part also concerns the interface where the user can switch between different visualizations or variables. This article clarifies the importance of how the developer must understand what data formats, data structures and standards that exist. How data is structured and in what format it is when it is obtained from the different data sources. The developer needs a good knowledge of the structure and format for ”get the data into” the aggregator. There should also be a given structure and format of the data ”from the” aggregator for a easy way to generate visualization – either by existing programs or through programming. It must also be easy to compile all the visualizations in a presentation; a dashboard.

Two perspectives
Borgman , Heierv and Bahli mean that there are two main perspectives and this is either demand-driven (user – centric) or supply driven (data centered) (Borgman, Heier, & Bahli, 2012). A user centered approach consists in starting from a BPM perspective and by defining KPIs for different processes and business related objects and goals. This gives knowledge of what data must be obtained to present facts to the user.

A different way to work with this is to develop decision-making-tools from the data and visualization of data by investigating witch data can be obtained. This is a supply driven (data centered) perspective. In this perspective for example an existing IT systems as a sales system can be investigated. The system is examined and a discussion takes place about which data to be retrieved from the system.

It is essential to learn more about these both perspectives when a dashboard for working environmental risks analysis shall to be produced. It is possible to argue that both approaches are important and you can work from both approaches.

Some examples of areas where dashboards are used
Dashboards use in a variety of areas. It is common with ”hard values​​” such as sales figures visualized for a sales manager. It can also involve entirely different KPIs; as an example it is common to studie of how groups of customers perceive a brand. This can be broken down into different groups, different geographical locations, and various times and the data therefore needs to be visualized and displayed on a dashboard. Dashboards also are used to monitor and control complex development projects. The production of complex IT system requires review, monitoring and management. The various participants in the projects must also understand what the other participants or groups of participants are doing and the dashboard is thus also a form of communication between various stakeholders.

The article Awareness 2.0 : Staying Aware of Projects Developers and Tasks using Dashboards and Feeds the researchers describe how dashboards are used for programming projects at IBM (Treude & Storey, n.d.). The dashboard is required here in order to monitor and understand how programming project progresses. The study raises questions such as: How are dashboards adopted and adapted? Why are dashboards used and which roles do they support? Which individual and collaborative processes do dashboards support? How does the use of dashboards evolve over the lifecycle of a project? Treude and Storey introduces a number of concepts that they believe to be the central force Dashboards. The concepts awareness (awareness, attention, knowledge) is presented. Peripheral awareness which I interpret as a conscious sharing that in itself is not of prime importance but you still get knowledge of stakeholders, and therefore a better overall view. Another concept that is central to the overview functions there may be a comparative variable. Tracking (following a trend) is another important task and identification of Bottlenecks (or other problems that need addressed) is another.

The article Commanders Dashboard: overview of tactical changes to improvement situated decision making in the field the researchers describe how dashboards are used by military commanders groups (Smets, Streefkerk, & Neerincx, 2010). This is part of the Mobile military information and decision systems. Smets, Streefker and Neerinex refer to the concept of situation awareness which is produced as a separate area within the User-Centred Design. In the area under study is a large focus on real-time communication between soldiers in the field, and communication centers. Here there is a high requirement for accurate and timely information that is quick to create meaning from.

The article Organizational Dashboards: Steering an Organization Towards its Mission Gitlow launched the concept of ”the critical few” that seems to be slang for the primary or critical parts of an organization (Gitlow, 2005). I perceive this to be the same as the KPI and when Gitlow reason about how dashboards must take as its point out of ”the critical few” this perception is reinforced. He launched a basic structure for a organization’s dashboard. The structure must be based on organization goals (mission). Management must analyze and describe the critical, central objects and indicators that show whether the organization is successful or not, Gitlow means that this often is associated with responsibility and hence titles and organizational structure. A title such as head of security, is associated with a responsibility and it must according to Gitlow be possible to reason about the head of security´s goals and how success it is measured. In this way, says Gitlow that the analysis may start at the top of the organization and then go down, responsibility for work description by work description, responsibilities and job titles. Gitlow says that it is common but not necessary with this from top to bottom perspective. The analysis is carried out with a number of matrices (templates) with objects, indicators are formulated. In the next stage different forms of priorities are made. Now he ties designers to the project but also work with existing analytical and visualization capabilities such as Gantt charts. Gitlow describes the benefits of dashboards and this description is consistent with other research. He differs, however, the strategy and tactics to the level of usage.

Gitlow also want to distinguish between two different types of critical items. One relates to the business object which consists of routine-based objects that needed to be done to enable the organization to function. This may involve, for example data about the organization, commodities or services of subcontractors as intended or that the effect of the sales is good. The second refers to more strategic items. This is about things that need to be monitored, analyzed or made ​​to the strategic objectives; again Gitlow is leaning against existing and formal analysis and management methods. It is important to note how the dashboard takes its starting point in business analysis and that this in itself is the area both as a practice and research area.

In the article A Balanced Scorecard Approach to Perioperative Process Management: A Case Study Perspective describes how dashboards are used in health care (Ryan, Lewis, Fretwell, Doster, & Daily, 2013). There is a clear difference with a commercial activity where goods are sold and where KPIs in largely deals with the production and sales. In healthcare success is measured in other dimensions and it can be a matter of patient safety, pain scores, how many operations that start on time, if lab tests were available so that the operation could start, and so on. At the same time it should be mentioned that there is an economic perspective on healthcare. Healthcare costs money. The article also provides a picture of how the various KPI takes its starting point from the international and national agreements on quality of care.

If a dashboard is developed out of knowledge on some form of standard (rule or law) there is a opportunity to compare different companies or organizations. In this case it is called Quality Benchmark Standards. One conclusion that can be drawn from this is that when designing a dashboard, it is wise to not just ”start at the top” according Gitlows model but also look outside the company, and perhaps against national and international standards for the topic or industry. Although this study provides a very clear picture of the importance that in a very systematic way to investigate what is the sign of success, how it manifests itself, how it can be measured, how data can be collected.

A survey and article of particular interest is the Visualization of Automated Compliance Monitoring and Reporting that is about creating a dashboard to monitor how an organization relates to a specific framework, set or rules or standard (Sandner, Kehlenbeck, & Breitner, 2010). The concept of compliance software are introduced. The goal of a dashboard for Compliance management is, [to] provide professional decision-makers with the necessary leeway for corresponding measures. If these measures are not taken, several negative consequences may follow, fraud, damage to the Organization’s reputation, fines as well as the decline of the Organization’s credit rating or market value.

Another area that is most interesting and relevant to the field is that of cognition in relation to the dashboard and visualization of data. Clark says in the article Exceptions and Other Rare and Irregular Events: Two Modes of Learning in Business Intelligence that there may be reasons to work with theories about how people learn to create relevant tools (Clark, 2011). An idea that Clark is investigating is how it is grateful to alert people on exception, and how this is powerful learning. Clark believes that humans distill knowledge from rare and irregular events, and he apply this to a theory of exception-design and recommends elements of this in competitive intelligence dashboards.

Aroon Marcus argues in his article Dashboards in Your Future how the Dashboard fields focus on to short intervals and removes focus from longer to aim and trends (Marcus, 2006). He argues that the Dashboard in itself can lead to overreactions and hasty decisions. Marcus wants that this is something that should be taken into account when designing dashboards. The designer must have a deeper understanding of information needs and not just the knowledge of how information can be visualized in a smart way.

Discussion
Reading for the development of Key Performance Indicators (KPI)
The first thing needed to be done is to conduct a thorough reading on the subject of working environmental (health and safety at work) risk analysis. What is the hallmark of a good work environment? How is it possible to measure whether a work environmental manager is successful or not? In this way, we take the starting point of the organization, the processes, the organization of work-titles. There may also be reasons to look beyond the actual organizations. OHSAS 18000 is a series of standards that could be the basis for a management system for working environmental (health and safety at work) and the develop of a dashboard. The designer needs to developed a number of widely accepted key performance indicators (KPIs).

The next phase for research and deeper understanding is regarding risk analysis for good working environment and also here produce/develope a number of widely accepted key performance indicators (KPIs). This is a user- centered perspective. In parallel with this work, it will need to be a supply – driven (datacentered) examination of the data that is possible to get out of the available systems.

There is a need to do thorough research and reading regarding what technology to use. This will in turn clarify demands on how data should be organized and in what format it should be.

There is a need to do thorough research and reading regarding how data can and should be visualized. There is here an interface to both management and the cognition. The goal is to create meaning from huge amounts of data. There is also a need to understand the technologies for visualization that shall be used and what it demands there is on data formats.

There is a need to do thorough research and reading regarding the presentation and navigation for a dashboard. How shall the various visualizations be presented for the user? What are the variables that will be possible to interact with in order to further deepen the possibility of analysis? There is also a need to understand the technologies that shall be used and what it demands of data formats.

Conclusions
When a dashboard shall be developed the designer must understand what is considered to be a signs of success in the field. The designer must analyses the Business Performance Management (BPM) and he/she must produce knowledge on Key Performance Indicators (KPI). This is a demand-driven (user-centric) perspective. It is also possible to have a supply-driven (data centered) perspective. Here, the designers start of from the data sources that are available. There are also reasons to learn about national and international standards and perceptions what constitutes success in a particular field or industry. It is possible to divide the design process (and readings) to in different parts. These are: data sources, data aggregation, visualization, presentation. There is also a major need for knowledge on existing technologies, data formats and data structures.

References

Borgman, H. P., Heier, H., & Bahli, B. (2012). Paradise by the Dashboard Light: Designing Governance Metrics in Turbulent Environments. 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 4178–4188. doi:10.1109/HICSS.2012.465

Chen, H., & Chen, G. (2013). Business Intelligence and Analytics : Research Directions, 3(4), 1–10.

Clark, J. W. (2011). Exceptions and Other Rare and Irregular Events: Two Modes of Learning in Business Intelligence (Research in Progress). 2011 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1–10. doi:10.1109/HICSS.2011.198

Elias, M., & Bezerianos, A. (2012). Annotating BI Visualization Dashboards : Needs & Challenges, 1641–1650.

Frolick, M. N., & Ariyachandra, T. R. (2006). Business Performance Management: One Truth. Information Systems Management, 23(1), 41–48. doi:10.1201/1078.10580530/45769.23.1.20061201/91771.5

Gaver, W. (2012). What should we expect from research through design? Proceedings of the 2012 ACM annual conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems – CHI  ’12, 937. doi:10.1145/2207676.2208538

Gitlow, H. S. (2005). Organizational Dashboards: Steering an Organization Towards its Mission. Quality Engineering, 17(3), 345–357. doi:10.1081/QEN-200059847

Marcus, A. (2006). Dashboards in your future. interactions, 13(1), 48–60. doi:10.1145/1109069.1109103

McKeon, M. (2009). Harnessing the web information ecosystem with wiki-based visualization dashboards. IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, 15(6), 1081–8. doi:10.1109/TVCG.2009.148

Ryan, J., Lewis, C., Fretwell, C., Doster, B., & Daily, S. (2013). A Balanced Scorecard Approach to Perioperative Process Management: A Case Study Perspective. 2013 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2606–2615. doi:10.1109/HICSS.2013.29

Sandner, T., Kehlenbeck, M., & Breitner, M. H. (2010). Visualization of Automated Compliance Monitoring and Reporting. 2010 Workshops on Database and Expert Systems Applications, 364–368. doi:10.1109/DEXA.2010.77

Smets, N. J. J. M., Streefkerk, J. W., & Neerincx, M. A. (2010). Commanders Dashboard: overview of tactical changes to improve situated decision making in the field. In Proceedings of the 28th Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (pp. 193–200). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi:10.1145/1962300.1962340

Treude, C., & Storey, M. (n.d.). Awareness 2 . 0 : Staying Aware of Projects , Developers and Tasks using Dashboards and Feeds, 365–374.

Weber, A., & Thomas, R. (2005). KEY PERFORMANCE Measuring and Managing the Maintenance, (November).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Construction of a dashboard for working environmental (health and safety at work) risk analysis

Construction of a dashboard for working environmental (health and safety at work) risk analysis

Summary
The goal of this article is to define what a person must know to create a dashboard for working environmental risk analysis. The article is the result of information retrieval on the term dashboard from a design perspective. This article describes two overarching perspective. These are demand-driven (user-centric) or supply-driven (data centered). One conclusion is that readings will have to be on in several different industries, technologies and disciplines.

Introduction
Dashboards are used for corporate and business analysis in order to get an overview monitor and guide the development of an organization or a company. The area Compliance Management concerns information gathering, analysis and control for the organization to adhere to the laws and rules that apply. This article examines the area of ​​ working environmental risks and it is possible to argue that what is examined is the ability to create a dashboard as compliance software for the area. A particular focus is on users who are senior leaders, national or international level and who need to control how the work environment is managed at hundreds of local branches or places of business.

Work environment (health and safety at work)

A systematic approach to health and safety at work is about to pay attention and take into account all the circumstances of the work environment that may affect employees health and safety. Crucial for a systematic work is what is what is achieved in practice to improve the working environment. This is in Sweden regulated in the Work Environment Ordinance (1977:1166 ) and in the The Work Environment Act (1977:1160) . In Sweden the governmental authority Arbetsmiljöverket monitors  that the law is followed. They publish detailed specifications for how the companies will work to fulfill the law. Every company or organization are conducted to once a year or at major organizational changes conduct a risk analysis.

A risk analysis takes its starting point from available data, research and statistics on occupational risks in a particular sector and, based on this knowledge, produced a number of control points . Risks are highlighted and weighted. An action plan is created and then the each risk must be addressed. Risk assessment, summaries of injuries and incidents and action plans must be to be documented.

It is very common with various forms of commercial chains in Sweden. It may be a commercial chain with a large number of stores, car repair-shop, hamburger restaurants and so on. It could be a brand with so-called franchisees. It will be a central issue at the national level to manage, operate, so that all players in the group stay with the laws or regulations on work environment. The profession of this this is called Compliance Management.

There is a need on top-level as the manager of a trademark or brand monitoring how the local actors do their job. Trends, changes, progress must be monitored and there is a need for a tool or aid for analysis and decision-making. In this article i want to define the knowledge areas concerning creation of a dashboard for working environmental (health and safety at work) risk analysis. To do this we need to establish what constitutes a good work environment and how can the activities around this be measured?

Business Management
Corporate business management is a very broad area that can be summarized with an organizations actions, tools, and culture to guide the company in the desired directions. In this context, I will focus on two things: Business Performance Management (BPM) and Key Performance Indicators (KPI). Business Performance Management is a consolidation of concepts that companies have been practicing for some time, such as data ware housing, business intelligence, and quality management. This single integrated concept is focused on Enhancing Corporate Performance. BPM provides an opportunity to align operations to organizational strategy and evaluates its progress overtime toward goal attainment (Frolick & Ariyachandra, 2006). Performance measurement is a fundamental principle of management. The measurement of performance is important because it identifies current performance gaps between current and desired performance and provides indication of progress towards closing the gaps. Carefully selected key performance indicators identify precisely where to take action to improvement performance (Weber & Thomas, 2005). It is important to identify what is important in an organization, then seek to measure this. This is what is called the KPI and the data that is collected can then be analyzed and forms an important part of the governance of the organization.

It is possible to argue that to and govern a company in a more systematic way demonstrates both the levels of hazards in work environment and how systematic approach to the work environment lead to competitive advantage. An similar concept is Competitive Intelligence that could be under stood as methods and tools for using in the organization with the goal to give the company strategic advantage. Competitive Intelligence are about the development of technologies, systems , practices , and applications to analyze critical business data so as to gain new insights about business and markets . The new insights can be used for improving products and services, achieving better operational efficiency, and fostering customer relationships (Chen & Chen, 2013).

In the area of ​​required tools for creating insight and knowledge from large amounts of data it is a systematic way of looking at the world that aims to create capacity for action at alternative future scenario. Special focus is on creating the opportunity to understand and preferably anticipate unexpected changes.

Dashboard
A dashboard is a real-time snapshot created that allows the user to get insights. It is a user interface that presents facts and trends in an organization and its environment. The concept dashboard has its background in design for cars and concerns the design of information interaction that occurs between driver and car. The basic idea of ​​a dashboard is that interactive visualizations help users gain insights into data, identify patterns, and make decisions. During visual analysis, a single analyst or a group , access information from multiple sources to combine insights (Elias & Bezerianos, 2012).

The dashboards major parts
In the article Harnessing the web information ecosystem with wiki-based visualization dashboards McKeon Introduces the idea of ​​a wiki-like system for building dashboards (McKeon, 2009). He describes how there is a variety of data sources, tools for processing information and tools for visualizing data. He describes that it is his goal to research and development with ambition to reduce the barriers to create a dashboard. He examines in detail how it is possible communicate the artifacts through social media, and that a dashboard can become a social phenomenon where many people co-create and develop dashboard. A very simple instructive image is presented in the article that essentially shows some different parts of a dashboard. The last part, social media is of particular interest to McKein but the other parts can be regarded general in the preparation of creating a dashboard. Here below shows the five main parts of McKeins image.

Data sources > Data aggregator > Visualization > Presentation > Social media

Data sources can be internal data (produced within the organization) or external data (such as meteorological data, or data from social media). Data aggregation is the part where different data and data sources are mixed. By combining multiple data sets new patterns emerge and new knowledge arises. Visualization phase is when the developer chooses which method or model for visualization that is most suitable to communicate with the user. The presentation is when all the visualizations are compiled into a single page. This part also concerns the interface where the user can switch between different visualizations or variables. This article clarifies the importance of how the developer must understand what data formats, data structures and standards that exist. How data is structured and in what format it is when it is obtained from the different data sources. The developer needs a good knowledge of the structure and format for ”get the data into” the aggregator. There should also be a given structure and format of the data ”from the” aggregator for a easy way to generate visualization – either by existing programs or through programming. It must also be easy to compile all the visualizations in a presentation; a dashboard.

Two perspectives
Borgman , Heierv and Bahli mean that there are two main perspectives and this is either demand-driven (user – centric) or supply driven (data centered) (Borgman, Heier, & Bahli, 2012). A user centered approach consists in starting from a BPM perspective and by defining KPIs for different processes and business related objects and goals. This gives knowledge of what data must be obtained to present facts to the user.

A different way to work with this is to develop decision-making-tools from the data and visualization of data by investigating witch data can be obtained. This is a supply driven (data centered) perspective. In this perspective for example an existing IT systems as a sales system can be investigated. The system is examined and a discussion takes place about which data to be retrieved from the system.

It is essential to learn more about these both perspectives when a dashboard for working environmental risks analysis shall to be produced. It is possible to argue that both approaches are important and you can work from both approaches.

Some examples of areas where dashboards are used
Dashboards use in a variety of areas. It is common with ”hard values​​” such as sales figures visualized for a sales manager. It can also involve entirely different KPIs; as an example it is common to studie of how groups of customers perceive a brand. This can be broken down into different groups, different geographical locations, and various times and the data therefore needs to be visualized and displayed on a dashboard. Dashboards also are used to monitor and control complex development projects. The production of complex IT system requires review, monitoring and management. The various participants in the projects must also understand what the other participants or groups of participants are doing and the dashboard is thus also a form of communication between various stakeholders.

The article Awareness 2.0 : Staying Aware of Projects Developers and Tasks using Dashboards and Feeds the researchers describe how dashboards are used for programming projects at IBM (Treude & Storey, n.d.). The dashboard is required here in order to monitor and understand how programming project progresses. The study raises questions such as: How are dashboards adopted and adapted? Why are dashboards used and which roles do they support? Which individual and collaborative processes do dashboards support? How does the use of dashboards evolve over the lifecycle of a project? Treude and Storey introduces a number of concepts that they believe to be the central force Dashboards. The concepts awareness (awareness, attention, knowledge) is presented. Peripheral awareness which I interpret as a conscious sharing that in itself is not of prime importance but you still get knowledge of stakeholders, and therefore a better overall view. Another concept that is central to the overview functions there may be a comparative variable. Tracking (following a trend) is another important task and identification of Bottlenecks (or other problems that need addressed) is another.

The article Commanders Dashboard: overview of tactical changes to improvement situated decision making in the field the researchers describe how dashboards are used by military commanders groups (Smets, Streefkerk, & Neerincx, 2010). This is part of the Mobile military information and decision systems. Smets, Streefker and Neerinex refer to the concept of situation awareness which is produced as a separate area within the User-Centred Design. In the area under study is a large focus on real-time communication between soldiers in the field, and communication centers. Here there is a high requirement for accurate and timely information that is quick to create meaning from.

The article Organizational Dashboards: Steering an Organization Towards its Mission Gitlow launched the concept of ”the critical few” that seems to be slang for the primary or critical parts of an organization (Gitlow, 2005). I perceive this to be the same as the KPI and when Gitlow reason about how dashboards must take as its point out of ”the critical few” this perception is reinforced. He launched a basic structure for a organization’s dashboard. The structure must be based on organization goals (mission). Management must analyze and describe the critical, central objects and indicators that show whether the organization is successful or not, Gitlow means that this often is associated with responsibility and hence titles and organizational structure. A title such as head of security, is associated with a responsibility and it must according to Gitlow be possible to reason about the head of security´s goals and how success it is measured. In this way, says Gitlow that the analysis may start at the top of the organization and then go down, responsibility for work description by work description, responsibilities and job titles. Gitlow says that it is common but not necessary with this from top to bottom perspective. The analysis is carried out with a number of matrices (templates) with objects, indicators are formulated. In the next stage different forms of priorities are made. Now he ties designers to the project but also work with existing analytical and visualization capabilities such as Gantt charts. Gitlow describes the benefits of dashboards and this description is consistent with other research. He differs, however, the strategy and tactics to the level of usage.

Gitlow also want to distinguish between two different types of critical items. One relates to the business object which consists of routine-based objects that needed to be done to enable the organization to function. This may involve, for example data about the organization, commodities or services of subcontractors as intended or that the effect of the sales is good. The second refers to more strategic items. This is about things that need to be monitored, analyzed or made ​​to the strategic objectives; again Gitlow is leaning against existing and formal analysis and management methods. It is important to note how the dashboard takes its starting point in business analysis and that this in itself is the area both as a practice and research area.

In the article A Balanced Scorecard Approach to Perioperative Process Management: A Case Study Perspective describes how dashboards are used in health care (Ryan, Lewis, Fretwell, Doster, & Daily, 2013). There is a clear difference with a commercial activity where goods are sold and where KPIs in largely deals with the production and sales. In healthcare success is measured in other dimensions and it can be a matter of patient safety, pain scores, how many operations that start on time, if lab tests were available so that the operation could start, and so on. At the same time it should be mentioned that there is an economic perspective on healthcare. Healthcare costs money. The article also provides a picture of how the various KPI takes its starting point from the international and national agreements on quality of care.

If a dashboard is developed out of knowledge on some form of standard (rule or law) there is a opportunity to compare different companies or organizations. In this case it is called Quality Benchmark Standards. One conclusion that can be drawn from this is that when designing a dashboard, it is wise to not just ”start at the top” according Gitlows model but also look outside the company, and perhaps against national and international standards for the topic or industry. Although this study provides a very clear picture of the importance that in a very systematic way to investigate what is the sign of success, how it manifests itself, how it can be measured, how data can be collected.

A survey and article of particular interest is the Visualization of Automated Compliance Monitoring and Reporting that is about creating a dashboard to monitor how an organization relates to a specific framework, set or rules or standard (Sandner, Kehlenbeck, & Breitner, 2010). The concept of compliance software are introduced. The goal of a dashboard for Compliance management is, [to] provide professional decision-makers with the necessary leeway for corresponding measures. If these measures are not taken, several negative consequences may follow, fraud, damage to the Organization’s reputation, fines as well as the decline of the Organization’s credit rating or market value.

Another area that is most interesting and relevant to the field is that of cognition in relation to the dashboard and visualization of data. Clark says in the article Exceptions and Other Rare and Irregular Events: Two Modes of Learning in Business Intelligence that there may be reasons to work with theories about how people learn to create relevant tools (Clark, 2011). An idea that Clark is investigating is how it is grateful to alert people on exception, and how this is powerful learning. Clark believes that humans distill knowledge from rare and irregular events, and he apply this to a theory of exception-design and recommends elements of this in competitive intelligence dashboards.

Aroon Marcus argues in his article Dashboards in Your Future how the Dashboard fields focus on to short intervals and removes focus from longer to aim and trends (Marcus, 2006). He argues that the Dashboard in itself can lead to overreactions and hasty decisions. Marcus wants that this is something that should be taken into account when designing dashboards. The designer must have a deeper understanding of information needs and not just the knowledge of how information can be visualized in a smart way.

Discussion
Reading for the development of Key Performance Indicators (KPI)
The first thing needed to be done is to conduct a thorough reading on the subject of working environmental (health and safety at work) risk analysis. What is the hallmark of a good work environment? How is it possible to measure whether a work environmental manager is successful or not? In this way, we take the starting point of the organization, the processes, the organization of work-titles. There may also be reasons to look beyond the actual organizations. OHSAS 18000 is a series of standards that could be the basis for a management system for working environmental (health and safety at work) and the develop of a dashboard. The designer needs to developed a number of widely accepted key performance indicators (KPIs).

The next phase for research and deeper understanding is regarding risk analysis for good working environment and also here produce/develope a number of widely accepted key performance indicators (KPIs). This is a user- centered perspective. In parallel with this work, it will need to be a supply – driven (datacentered) examination of the data that is possible to get out of the available systems.

There is a need to do thorough research and reading regarding what technology to use. This will in turn clarify demands on how data should be organized and in what format it should be.

There is a need to do thorough research and reading regarding how data can and should be visualized. There is here an interface to both management and the cognition. The goal is to create meaning from huge amounts of data. There is also a need to understand the technologies for visualization that shall be used and what it demands there is on data formats.

There is a need to do thorough research and reading regarding the presentation and navigation for a dashboard. How shall the various visualizations be presented for the user? What are the variables that will be possible to interact with in order to further deepen the possibility of analysis? There is also a need to understand the technologies that shall be used and what it demands of data formats.

Conclusions
When a dashboard shall be developed the designer must understand what is considered to be a signs of success in the field. The designer must analyses the Business Performance Management (BPM) and he/she must produce knowledge on Key Performance Indicators (KPI). This is a demand-driven (user-centric) perspective. It is also possible to have a supply-driven (data centered) perspective. Here, the designers start of from the data sources that are available. There are also reasons to learn about national and international standards and perceptions what constitutes success in a particular field or industry. It is possible to divide the design process (and readings) to in different parts. These are: data sources, data aggregation, visualization, presentation. There is also a major need for knowledge on existing technologies, data formats and data structures.

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